Basic R commands – 2 – probability distributions

Basic Commands and Statistics with R – 2 – probability distibutions. R Functions for the most common probability distibutions.








Basic R commands – 1.2 – permutations and matrix functions


Basic R commands – 1

Renewable electricity output – Regions



Renewable electricity output – World Map






Renewable electricity output – Statistics

# income categories

– Low income
– Lower middle income
– Upper middle income
– High income


Using trigonometric functions in R

R uses radiant as input for trigonometric functions.

Now we can plot the function.

And by playing with the functions we get a funny graphic output.

And if we include the tangent, the graphic looks like this:


Audio file conversion with afconvert (mac)

I was looking for a simple and elegant way to convert a high amount of audio files from one format (.caf) to another (.aif). The solution i found is a very elegant one and also comes included with your operating system – if using a MAC.

And now here is the most amazing part. It is super easy to execute the conversion of multiple files by just one command line.

or to run through subdirectories:

or with recursion by using find:

Key linear PCM format
LE Little Endian
BE Big Endian
F Floating point
I Integer
UI Unsigned integer
8/16/24/32/64 Number of bits

Number of bits Information Size
8 256
16 65536
24 16777216
32 4294967296
64 18446744073709551616

Audio file and data formats: data_formats:
‘3gpp’ = 3GP Audio (.3gp) ‘Qclp’ ‘aac ‘ ‘aace’ ‘aach’ ‘aacl’ ‘aacp’ ‘samr’
‘3gp2’ = 3GPP-2 Audio (.3g2) Qclp’ ‘aac ‘ ‘aace’ ‘aach’ ‘aacl’ ‘aacp’ ‘samr’
‘adts’ = AAC ADTS (.aac, .adts) ‘aac ‘ ‘aach’ ‘aacp’
‘ac-3’ = AC3 (.ac3) ‘ac-3’
‘AIFC’ = AIFC (.aifc, .aiff, .aif) I8 BEI16 BEI24 BEI32 BEF32 BEF64 UI8 ‘ulaw’ ‘alaw’ ‘MAC3’ ‘MAC6’ ‘ima4’ ‘QDMC’ ‘QDM2’ ‘Qclp’ ‘agsm’
‘AIFF’ = AIFF (.aiff, .aif) I8 BEI16 BEI24 BEI32
‘amrf’ = AMR (.amr) ‘samr’
‘m4af’ = Apple MPEG-4 Audio (.m4a, .m4r) ‘aac ‘ ‘aace’ ‘aach’ ‘aacl’ ‘aacp’ ‘alac’
‘caff’ = CAF (.caf) ‘.mp1’ ‘.mp2’ ‘.mp3’ ‘QDM2’ ‘QDMC’ ‘Qclp’ ‘Qclq’ ‘aac ‘ ‘aace’ ‘aach’ ‘aacl’ ‘aacp’ ‘alac’ ‘alaw’ ‘dvi8’ ‘ilbc’ ‘ima4’ I8 BEI16 BEI24 BEI32 BEF32 BEF64 LEI16 LEI24 LEI32 LEF32 LEF64 ‘ms\x00\x02’ ‘ms\x00\x11’ ‘ms\x001’ ‘paac’ ‘samr’ ‘ulaw’
‘MPG1’ = MPEG Layer 1 (.mp1, .mpeg, .mpa) ‘.mp1’
‘MPG2’ = MPEG Layer 2 (.mp2, .mpeg, .mpa) ‘.mp2’
‘MPG3’ = MPEG Layer 3 (.mp3, .mpeg, .mpa) ‘.mp3’
‘mp4f’ = MPEG-4 Audio (.mp4) data_formats: ‘aac ‘ ‘aace’ ‘aach’ ‘aacl’ ‘aacp’
‘NeXT’ = NeXT/Sun (.snd, .au) I8 BEI16 BEI24 BEI32 BEF32 BEF64 ‘ulaw’
‘Sd2f’ = Sound Designer II (.sd2) I8 BEI16 BEI24 BEI32
‘WAVE’ = WAVE (.wav) UI8 LEI16 LEI24 LEI32 LEF32 LEF64 ‘ulaw’ ‘alaw’

access file systems – recursive function r

I was playing around with recursion. This is a short snippet about iterating through folder structures. It shows all directories and subdirectories within a file path.

This is the output from a test directory:


My Sounds (

This is a collection of my sounds at I try to keep the list up to date but sometimes there are more sounds available on freesound therefore please check out my freesound account and freesound in general. “Freesound is a collaborative database of Creative Commons Licensed sounds. Browse, download and share sounds.” –